In 1884, at the Berlin Conference, the European powers carved up Africa amongst themselves. By 1914 all of Africa, except Liberia and Ethiopia, was under colonial rule. Today, African countries are politically independent of their former European masters.
Background and focus
Recommended reading: Martin Meredith
This topic compares two forms of states that emerged from nationalist movements in the 1960s.
The Congo was used as a tool in the Cold War. This left a legacy that continues today.
Tanzania developed as a socialist state, implementing ideas of African socialism.
The focus is on the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges that countries
faced in Africa after independence, illustrated by the Congo and Tanzania.
The Scramble for Africa (or the Race for Africa) was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and the start of World War 1.
Figure 1: Africa before Independence Figure 2: Africa Today ( 28/01/2015)
http://www.saflirista.com/Colonial-Africa.png (colonised Africa ) http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africapolitmap.jpg( Independent Africa )
At the Berlin Conference (1883/4 – 1885), the major European countries carved up Africa amongst seven major European states. (See above). Africa had been transformed from being an extension of seven European powers towards full political independence. The first country to gain independence was Liberia ( 26 / 07 / 1847 ) from Britain. The last country to gain independence was Eritrea ( 24/05/1993) from Ethiopia.
http://africanhistory.about.com/library/timelines/blIndependenceTime.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
The following is to be covered in this topic:
What were the ideas that influenced the independent states?
This section includes different forms of government (political ideologies and economies), such as :
It is worth mentioning that most African liberation movements were influenced, in varying degrees, by Marxist doctrine. So the amalgamation of what it meant to be African and a newly liberated citizenry; was, again, influenced by Marxist/ Communist doctrine. Post-independent Africa followed this ‘doctrinal’ trajectory by
Friedland and Rosberg's (1992) attempt to summarize the three (3) main characteristics of African socialism, as follows:
a)·no private ownership of land
b)·no social classes
c)·no shirking of responsibility to cooperate (work)
i) http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3160/3160lect03.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
ii) http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3160/3160lect03.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
iii)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXjL-HHn_a8 [Accessed 16 February 2015]
2. capitalism, democracy and,
3. one-party states
The galvanising of the opposition to colonisation meant that there was a large degree of unanimity within
liberation movements across Africa. ‘One-party states’ quickly emerged. These states were characterised by an
extremely strong political party, perhaps with smaller, peripheral parties; that largely controlled the domestic
conditions in the country. This emergence, in itself, would create problems for these newly-independent
countries, in the future.
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/African_Socialism.aspx [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Comparative case studies (1960 to 1980) as examples to illustrate the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges in independent Africa (1960 to 1980).
The case studies are NOT meant to be seperately examined.
(the Congo (became a tool of the Cold War)
Source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/churchplantmedia-[Accessed 16 February 2015]cms/mavuno_grassroots_development_for_congo/democratic-republic-congo-map.jpg [Accessed 16 February 2015]
For a brief history of the Congo region in general; and the DRC, in particular, please visit...
http://www.mavunocongo.org/history [Accessed 16 February 2015]
It should be noted however that the CONGO REGION consists of :
1.The Republic of Congo and
2.The Democratic Republic of the Congo
The discussion that follows centres on the Democratic Republic of Congo.
King Leopold II...of Belgium
Patrice Lumumba...of the DRC
Source:http://www.standnow.org/system/files/leopold.jpg [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Source:http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2013/10/25/1382706596437/Mobutu-Sese-Seko-pictured-010.jpg [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Source:https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQJAqFDU_kkYBG8-GVzbBP9SZARifFSKYPNCCBRfhzFwGFXX7-rqw [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Source: https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRCTvSpvDBFnZJ6-L91RUREjEl_18DF6vx2ug6N-QXnxloKIOUb [Accessed 16 February 2015]
King Leopold II formally acquires Congo territory as his own private property, naming it Congo Free State
Leopold and his army terrorize inhabitants in pursuit of resources. An estimated 10 million Congolese, half the population, die
Major nationalist riots in the capital threaten Belgium's control over Belgian Congo territory
Mouvemont National Congolais (MNC) party wins parliamentary elections. Patrice Lumumba becomes prime minister. Joseph Kasavubu is elected President.
June 30, 1960
Belgian Congo gains independence, becoming Republic of Congo
January 17, 1961
Patrice Lumumba is executed by forces from Katanga province backed by Belgium
Kanyarwanda War: Coalitions of different ethnic groups battle for land rights in North Kivu
Joseph-Desire Mobutu overthrows Kasavubu in a Western-backed coup and establishes a one-party system
Mobutu changes the country's official name to "Democratic Republic of Congo" to distinguish it from the former French colony "Republic of Congo"
Mobutu changes the name of the capital from Leopoldville to Kinshasa, and renames several other cities as well
Mobutu renames the country "Zaire" and changes his own name to Mobutu Sese Seko
Massive inflow of Hutu refugees fleeing massacres in Burundi after a failed Hutu rebellion against the Burundian government
All Banyarwanda (ethnic Rwandan and Burundian) residing in Congo from 1959-1963 are granted citizenship
Amid growing resentment of the increase in Banyarwandan Tutsi power, local Hutu and Congolese increase political mobilization and gain additional influence in the national assembly
Citizenship for Banyarwanda groups, mostly Tutsis, is restricted to those who could trace ancestry in Congo back to 1885. This reflected a desire to counter growing Tutsi economic power in the Kivu region
Mobutu declares the Third Republic, introducing a new constitution that includes democratic reforms and lifts the ban on multiparty politics
Fall of the Soviet Union. Relations between Mobutu and the West deteriorate, as incentives to back Mobutu in the name of anti-Communism disappear
Governor Jean-Pierre Kalumbo Mbogho orders all Tutsis removed from the region and calls for their extermination. Violence breaks out, claiming 14,000 lives over the next two months
Mobutu dismisses Governor Kalumbo and increases Tutsi representation in the provincial government of the Kivus
Rwanda's Hutu extremist government orchestrates genocide of approx. 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. After Tutsi rebels take control of Rwanda, over a million refugees flood into Congo, including Rwandan army soldiers and Hutu extremist Interhamwe militiamen complicit in the genocide
First Congo War
Rwandan forces invade Congo to protect Tutsis and destroy Hutu militia camps. Mobutu's government opposes the incursion, prompting reform elements to unite against him.
Anti-Mobutu rebels, backed by Rwanda, seize Kinshasa and install Laurent Kabila as president. The country is renamed again to "Democratic Republic of Congo"
President Kabila calls for withdrawal of all Rwandan and Ugandan forces from the country
Second Congo War
Rebels back by Rwanda and Uganda rise up against Kabila and take control of much of eastern DRC. Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Angola send troops to repel the rebels.
Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Angola, and DRC sign peace accord in Lusaka, Zambia
August 1999: MLC and RDC rebels sign Lusaka accord
November 30, 1999
UN Security Council sets up 5,500-strong force to monitor the ceasefire, known as MONUC. Fighting continues between rebel and government forces, and between Rwanda- and Uganda-backed forces
Laurent Kabila is assassinated by a bodyguard and is succeeded by his son, Joseph Kabila.
Tanzania ...as an example of African socialism
Gained independence from Britain on 09/12/1961.
Source: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/images/map-tanzania.png [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Â·www.sahistory.org.za”º timelines ”º This day in History [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Leaders of Tanzania Since Independence
A list of Tanzanian leaders since gaining independence on 9 December 1961
Zanzibar gained its independence as a Sultanate on 10 December 1963, and was proclaimed the People's Republic of Zanzibar on 12 January 1964 following a coup. On 26 April 1964 it merged with the Republic of Tanganyika to become the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
Although Zanzibar and Tanzania are united, Zanzibar continues to have its own president.
Sultan of Zanzibar
1 Jul 1963 - 12 Jan 1964
Jamshid ibn Abd Allah
President of People's Republic of Zanzibar
12 Jan 1964 - 26 Apr 1964
Abeid Amani Rashid Karume
President of Zanzibar
26 Apr 1964 - 7 Apr 1972
Abeid Amani Rashid Karume
11 Apr 1972 - 30 Jan 1984
Mwinyi Aboud Jumbe
30 Jan 1984 - 24 Oct 1985
Ali Hassan Mwinyi
24 Oct 1985 - 25 Oct 1990
Idris Abdul Wakil
25 Oct 1990 - 8 Nov 2000
8 Nov 2000 - present
Amani Abeid Karume
Key to Political Parties
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (formed by merger of TANU and ASP in January 1977)
Tanganyika African National Union (until1964)
Tanzania African National Union (from 1964)...
Source:http://africanhistory.about.com/od/tanzania/l/bl-Tanzania-Leaders.html [Accessed 16 February 2015]
This speech, by Julius Nyerere outlines the visions and central points of African Socialism.
http://www.juliusnyerere.info/images/uploads/ujamaa_1962.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2015]
1. http://www.fsmitha.com/p/ch34-tan.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
[Accessed 16 February 2015]
3. http://African Socialism - Encyclopedia.com [Accessed 16 February 2015]
The successes and challenges faced by independent Africa?
1) the kind of states that emerged - their aims and visions (political ideologies);
2) political including:
Types of leaders:
http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/patrice-lumumba [Accessed 16 February 2015]
“We are not communist, Catholics or socialist. We are African Nationalist. We retain the right to be friends with whoever we like in accordance with the principal of political neutrality.”
http://www.biography.com/people/patrice-lumumba-38745 [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Mobuto Sese Seko
http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0782891/bio [Accessed 16 February 2015]
“After me, a flood of chaos. Apres moi, le deluge.” – MSS
http://spartacus-educational.com/COLDmobutu.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Nyerere (What are the qualities of a good leader?)
http://www.nyererefoundation.org/biography [Accessed 16 February 2015]
"Violence is unnecessary and costly. Peace is the only way." - JN
https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/nyerere/biography.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
- legacies of colonialism;
http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m7b/activity3.php [Accessed 16 February 2015]
- types of government; and
- political stability and instability;
- types of economies (as third world countries)
social and cultural including:
- benefits of independence;
- education; and
What was the impact of the internal and external factors on Africa during the time?
Africa in the Cold War: USSR, USA, Cuba, China and South Africa
Case study: Angola ( 11/11/1975...Portugal )
History of Angola ( briefly)...
Source:http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/angola/map_of_angola.jpg [Accessed 16 February 2015]
Angola and slaves: 15th-19th century
Colonial period: 1885-1975
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ad33 [Accessed 16 February 2015]
http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/case-study-angola [Accessed 16 February 2015]
http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/angola-becomes-independent-portuguese-colonial-rule [Accessed 16 February 2015]
The case study will include:
introduction: how Africawas drawn into the Cold War (broadly);
competing spheres of influence - trade, conflict and aid;
Angola: colonialism and independence (broad overview);
Bantu speaking people migrate south into region.
Kingdom of Kongo formed in the north of region.
Portuguese sailors under the command of Diego CÁ¤o reach northern coastline of Angola. They encounter the Kongo and Ndongo kingdoms -- Angola is named for the Ndongo title for their king, Ngola.
Kongo King, Nzinga Nkuwu, in what is now northern Angola, is converted to Christianity.
Forts are established along the coast.
Portuguese found Luanda. Portuguese interests are centred on minerals and slaves. Slaves are shipped to Brazil from the main port at Luanda.
Portuguese campaign against Queen Nzinga of the Ndongo. The Ndongo are defeated by 1626.
Dutch occupy Luanda (until 1648) and drive the Portuguese out form settlements along the coast.
Portuguese forces dispatched from Brazil retake Luanda and the other coastal forts. Military conquest of the region begins.
Portuguese control the kingdom of Ndongo.
Portuguese abolish the slave trade (but not forced labour).
Portuguese slowly begin to extend their control into the interior.
Angola's borders are fixed as a result of the Berlin Congress.
Portuguese introduce forced labour.
Angola's borders as they are known today are settled.
Following the end of World War II emigration from Portugal to Angola increases.
Angola upgraded form colony to overseas province of Portugal.
Movement Popular da Libertação de Angola (MPLA, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola ) is formed on a non-racial (and non-tribal) basis, and with a mandate to end colonial rule. MPLA's leader, António Agostinho Neto received support from the Soviet Bloc.
Luanda and Northern Angola experience MPLA backed rebellions against colonial rule. They are met with severe repression by the Portuguese authorities. MPLA extends its armed struggle throughout rural areas.
Forced labour is finally abolished as a result of coffee plantation rebellions which cost the lives of 50,000 Angolans.
Holden Roberto begins an insurgency with his Frente Nacional para a Libertação de Angola (FNLA, National Front for the Liberation of Angola) in Northern Angola. The FNLA receives support from Zaire and the US.
União Nacional para a IndepÁªndencia Total de Angola (UNITA, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) formed by Jonas Savimbi in Southern Angola -- becoming Angola's third major nationalist movement.
End of Portuguese colonial era follows the military coup in Lisbon. Independence for African colonies is set for 1975. In Angola a transitional government is formed by the three nationalist movements: MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA. Unfortunately their vastly different goals lead to conflict and civil war. MPLA receives support from Cuba. UNITA receives support from South Africa.
11 November 1975
MPLA unilaterally proclaims the People's Republic of Angola with Neto as president.
FNLA forces are defeated by MPLA n the north of Angola.
An invasion by South African forces that are supporting UNITA is stopped 300 km south of Luanda -- MPLA forces are supported by military advisors from Cuba.
The UN recognizes the MPLA as the legitimate government of Angola. South Africa announces the intention to withdraw its troops from Angola.
A dissident group within the MPLA attempts a coup.
10 September 1979
Following the death of António Agostinho Neto, José Eduardo dos Santos becomes president for the MPLA.
South African forces advance 160 km into Angola in support of UNITA.
FNLA announces its withdrawal from military activities.
US begin to supply UNITA with military aid.
An agreement between South Africa and Cuba is signed which would stop their respective aid to UNITA and the MPLA (as well as giving neighbouring Namibia independence).
MPLA and UNITA agree a ceasefire -- once again it soon crumbles and guerrilla war recommences.
UNITA still controls large parts of Angola from its base in Jamba. As well as popular support from the Ovimbundu people, UNITA is still receiving support from the US and South Africa.
MPLA gives up Marxism-Leninism and adopts socialism.
Another peace deal, this time brokered by the UN, is agreed by the MPLA and UNITA. A new multiparty constitution is drafted.
Following an electoral win for José Eduardo dos Santos and the MPLA in multiparty national elections, conflict with UNITA begins anew as UNITA rejects results.
Lusaka Peace Agreement signed between MPLA and UNITA.
7,000 UN Peacekeepers arrive to oversee the peace agreement.
Government of National Unity is agreed. Opposing armies are to be combined into a national army. However tensions grow as few UNITA soldiers are incorporated into the new force.
Government of National Unity formed, but UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi declines a post and stays away from the inauguration ceremony.
Civil war starts up again.
UN Peacekeeping mission ended.
UNITA increases its guerrilla war against MPLA.
Jonas Savimbi, the UNITA leader, is killed in action by government troops.
Ceasefire between UNITA and MPLA government is signed. It is estimated that half-a-million Angolans have died in the civil wars and that another half-a -million are now facing starvation.
UNITA disbands its armed wing.
Isaias Samakuva elected as new leader of UNITA which has rejuvenated itself as a political party.
Angola becomes a major oil producing state, with over a million barrels a day being extracted.
Government announces that it has expelled over 300,000 illegal diamond miners and dealers.
Peace deal signed with rebels in northern enclave of Cabinda.
First parliamentary elections for over 15 years.
President José Eduardo dos Santos announces that presidential elections will be delayed for a few years.
Angolan parliament changes the constitution, strengthening the presidency and removing the requirement for direct elections.
Source: http://africanhistory.about.com/od/angola/l/Bl-Angola-Timeline.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
outbreak of civil war in 1974
- MPLA and UNITA
www.sahistory.org.za/.../angolan-civil-war-1975-2002-brief-history [Accessed 16 February 2015]
reasons for and nature of involvement in Angola (USSR, USA, Cuba, China and South Africa);
http://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1owf55/why_did_so_many_countries_get_involved_in_the/ [Accessed 16 February 2015]
www.jstor.org/stable/2637389 [Accessed 16 February 2015]
impact on regional stability;
significance of the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale 1987 and 1988;
http://www.sahistory.org.zapolitics and society ”º 20th Century South Africa [Accessed 16 February 2015]
http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za/pub/article/download/71/99 [Accessed 16 February 2015]
the changing nature of international relationships after 1989
1. http://jim.com/African_capitalism.htm [Accessed 16 February 2015]
2.http://science.jrank.org/pages/7540/Capitalism-Africa.html [Accessed 16 February 2015]
3.isbn: 0857203894 – Google Search. 2015. _Google Search [ ONLINE] Available at: https://booksgoogle.co.za/books?isbn=0857203894. [ Accessed 09 February 2015].
4.http://www.raceandhistory.com/cgi-bin/forum/webbbs_config.pl?md=read;id=534[Accessed 16 February 2015]
Presentation on theme: "CONGO AND TANZANIA Comparative Case Studies as examples to illustrate the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges in independent."— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s?
2 CONGO AND TANZANIAComparative Case Studies as examples to illustrate the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges in independent Africa: s. (Comparative Essay Question)
3 Where in the world is Congo and Tanzania?
4 Where are Congo and Tanzania located in Africa?
5 The leadershipMobutu Sese SekoJulius Nyerere
6 Ideas that influenced the independent states
African Socialism: Nyerere argued that there were no class structures in traditional African society. African socialism emphasised community and communal development rather than the European idea of working class revolution.Capitalism: It is an economic system that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the use of labour and resources to make a profit.Democracy: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.One-Party State: A political system where in only one party is allowed in a country. No opposition is allowed and all opposition parties are banned
7 What aspects of a country should be compared in a comparative study?
Political: relating to the government or the public affairs of a countryEconomic: the choices made about who can create, benefit from, have access to a country’s resources and wealthSocial: is the different ways that people organise themselves and live together in groups and the relationship which emerge (eg a class system)Cultural: is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, food, to social habits, clothes or music
8 What kind of State emerged?
Congo: supported by USATanzania: non-aligned1960: Gained independence from Belgium (Kasavubu - President, Lumumba - Prime Minister) – multi-party democracy.Mineral rich region, Katanga, seceded (Moise Tshombe)1961 and 1965: military Coup (supported by USA / CIA) Mobutu established a military dictatorship.1967: Abolished opposition parties.Authenticité or ZairisationMobutu’s Zaire characterised by corruption, kleptocracy, elitism.1961: Gained independence from Britain – muti-party democracy1962 – Nyerere became President1963: Nyerere abolished all other political parties. TANU became the only legal party.1964: Tanzania and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania1967: Arusha Declaration - stated commitment to African Socialism – introduced ‘Leadership Code’ and Ujaama.Attempted to remain non-aligned politically and avoid economic neo-colonialism.
9 What types of leaders emerged?
Congo / ZaireTanzaniaPatrice Lumumba – 1960: 1st Prime Minister of independent (DRC). Leader of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) – A pan/multi-ethnic political party to unify all Congolese into a single nationBelieved in ‘positive neutralism’ wanted DRC free from foreign interference, initially non-aligned but turned to USSR for support when Katanga seceded.Arrested and executed with USA / Belgium support in 1961Joseph Mobutu – 1961 and 1965: seized power by military coup (supported by the west)Ruled as a ruthless dictator until his death in 1997.Julius Nyerere – 1961: 1st Prime Minister of independenet Tanganyika; President in 1962.Leader of Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU).Called ‘Mwalimu’ (teacher) – Remembered for his personal integrity.Believed in pan-Africanism and equity. He rejected tribalism and opposed neo-colonialism.He attempted to keep Tanzania non-aligned during Cold War.Voluntarily retired in 1985Activity: What kind of leaders were Lumumba; Mobutu and Nyerere – use speech by each.
10 Economic Legacy of Colonialism
Both countries were colonised by European powers, Congo by Belgium and Tanzania by Germany and then Britain, who exploited their natural resources.At independence both countries had underdeveloped economies - their wealth came from agriculture and the sale of unprocessed minerals. Neither country had industrialised or had developed a manufacturing industry.The colonial powers only built infrastucture to service the export of raw materials not to promote internal trade.
11 Similarities between the economies of Congo and Tanzania
In both countries the majority of people were peasants (small scale farmers)Both countries struggled to develop a manufacturing industry after independenceIn both countries land and industry were nationalised. Mobutu nationalised most mines (‘Zairinisation’ proved to be a total failure and he had to re-privatise most mines); Tanzania also nationalised its industry and land but was forced to privatise these in return for debt relief from the World Bank and IMF in the 1980sIn both countries during the period s the majority of the people lived in poverty and the countries faced economic crisisBoth countries relied on the export of primary products. Congo is very rich in valuable minerals: copper, industrial diamonds, cobalt, gold and zinc; Tanzania’s economy is based on the production of cash crops such as coffee and tea. It also mines a rare gemstone called tanzaniteBoth countries were badly affected by the drop in price for raw materials in 1970sNeither country had oil reserves so were negatively impacted by steep increases in cost of oil (necessary for industrialisation and transport) in 1970sBoth countries experienced extreme economic problems in the years after independence and by the 1980s relied from loans from foreign countries (Congo – USA) and institutions (Tanzania - IMF and World Bank) to avoid bankruptcy
12 Differences between the economies of Congo and Tanzania
CONGO/ ZAIRETANZANIAAdopted a capitalist economic model (after initial attempts at nationalisation/ ‘Zairisation’)Relied heavily of foreign investment and received support from USA and West.Mobutu aimed to industrialise, process its own raw materials and develop an industrial base.Under Mobutu a very wealthy elite emerged. Corruption and cronyism led to greater class difference.Adopted a socialist economic model (although Nyerere had to abandon this in the 1980s)Attempted to remain economically independent and avoid neo-colonialismNyerere believed that attempting to industrialse was a mistake. He introduced Ujaama, a villagisation policy aimed to make the country self-sufficient in terms of foodNyerere attempted to prevent a new elite emerging with his ‘Leadership Code’Worksheet on Ujaama and villagisation.
13 Social & cultural successes and challenges
CongoTanzaniaClothing: inspired by ‘Maoist’ dressImposed ‘Abacos’ from (‘A bas le costumes’ – that literally meant ‘down with the suit!’)All Africans encouraged to discard their ‘European’ names.State run schools were established after independence but Mobutu did not divert sufficient money to education and Congo lacked qualified teachers.Clothing: inspired by ‘Maoist’ dressLanguage: African-language departments and research centers were created in newly founded universitiesPromotion of Kiswahili as a unifying languageUsed education to promote a national ethos, ideology and philosophy, and principles of a new society embracing a concept of social justice;‘Villagisation’: collective villages (managed by locals - inexperienced)