# Parindent Bibliography Template

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Inserting a tab will be problematic as it negates the effect of the hanging indent.  You could substitute blank spaces instead of a tab but this will reduce the width of the hanging indent.  To address these issues here’s a workaround which involves: 1) modifying the EndNote output style’s “Layout” setting; 2) generating the EndNote bibliography then copying it into MS Word and converting it to a .txt file to remove the field codes; then using MS Word to 3) insert the hanging indent as well as spacing between the bibliography number and first author’s name.

See Image 3 for the final result.

Details of the workaround process/steps goes like this (images are noted in the steps). Note that this process provides some flexibility in defining the length of the spacing/indenting which at this time EndNote is unable to offer.

A. EndNote Output Style:

Step 1. [see Image 1, top.]  In the Layout “Start each reference with” section of the EndNote output style, designate the Bibliography Number followed by a period and a symbol - this example uses a hashtag #.  (It can be any symbol but should be one which is unique to the generated bibliography list.)  The idea is to embed a symbol in each reference which will be used in Step 6 to facilitate a global Find and Replace in MS Word to add spacing between the bibliography number and first author’s name.

Step 2. If you previously inserted the Bibliography Number in the Bibliography templates, delete them.  We want the templates returned to their original “bibliography number-less” state.

Step 3. Close the output style and generate the reference bibliography.

B. MS Word:

Step 4. [see Image 1, bottom.]  We need to convert reference bibliography to a .txt file to remove the EndNote field codes so go to the EndNote section of the MS Word ribbon, select: Convert to Plain Text > Continue.  Note the hashtag appears in each reference following the bibliography number.

Step 5. [see Image 2, top.]  Now we’ll format the bibliography to have a hanging indent. Click to select the entire reference bibliography; then click to select:  Line and Paragraph Spacing  >  Line Spacing Options. In the Paragraph dialog box select “Hanging” (Special) and 0.9” (By). (If you prefer a smaller indent, lower the “By” number.) Click Ok which applies the hanging indent which is shown in Image 2.

Step 6. [see Image 2, bottom.]  Finally we will insert spacing between the bibliography number and first author by performing a Find and Replace to locate each hashtag # and replace it with 10 blank spaces. (Using blank spaces instead of a tab ensures the hanging indent is maintained.)

See Image 3 for the final result.  Now just copy and paste the bibliography into the original document.

Even though the default formatting in LaTeX is fine, sometimes we need to change some elements. In this article is explained how to format paragraphs, change the text alignment and insert blank spaces.

##  Introduction

\begin{center} Example 1: The following paragraph (given in quotes) is an example of Center Alignment using the center environment.   LaTeX is a document preparation system and document markup language. LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language. LaTeX is not the name of a particular editing program, but refers to the encoding or tagging conventions that are used in LaTeX documents". \end{center}

This two paragraphs are written inside a center environment, which causes them to be centred. Notice that to start a new paragraph you have to insert a blank line in between them. This is quite natural, but not the only way declare a new paragraph.

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##  New Paragraph

To start a new paragraph in LaTeX, as said before, you must leave a blank line in between. There's another way to start a new paragraph, look at the following code snippet.

This is the text in first paragraph. This is the text in first paragraph. This is the text in first paragraph. \par This is the text in second paragraph. This is the text in second paragraph. This is the text in second paragraph.

As you can see, the command also starts a new paragraph.

By default, the paragraphs are indented by 1.5 times the point size of the current font. Also, there is no extra blank space inserted between the paragraphs. In the sections below is described how to change that.

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##  Paragraph Alignment (Text Justification)

Paragraphs in LaTeX are fully justified, i.e. flush with both the left and right margins. If you would like to change the justification of a paragraph, LaTeX has the following three environments: center, flushleft and flushright (see an example of center at the introduction).

\begin{flushleft} LaTeX is a document preparation system and document markup language. LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language. LaTeX is not the name of a particular editing program, but refers to the encoding or tagging conventions that are used in LaTeX documents". \end{flushleft}

The flushleft environment left-justifies the paragraph. To right-justify use flushright instead.

The aforementioned environments are based upon the switch commands: (equivalent to flushleft), (equivalent to flushright) and (equivalent to center). A switch command switches the alignment from the point where it's inserted down to the end of the document, unless another switch command is inserted.

For more detailed information and examples on text alignment see the article Text alignment.

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##  Paragraph Indentation

By default, LaTeX does not indent the first paragraph of a section. The size of the subsequent paragraph indents is determined by the parameter.

\setlength{\parindent}{10ex} This is the text in first paragraph. This is the text in first paragraph. This is the text in first paragraph. \par\noindent%The next paragraph is not indented This is the text in second paragraph. This is the text in second paragraph. This is the text in second paragraph.

The default length of this parameter is set by the document class used. It is possible to change the indent size of the paragraph by using the command . In the example the paragraphs below will be indented 10ex (an "ex" equals the lenght of the "x" in the current font)

If you want to create a non-indented paragraph, like the second one in the example, you can use the command at the beginning of the paragraph.

If you want to indent a paragraph that is not indented you can use above it. It should be noted that this command will only have an effect when \parindent is not set to zero.

Detailed information and further examples can be found at Paragraph formatting.

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